The Individual 401(k), also known as a Solo 401(k) plan, is unique and so popular because it is designed explicitly for small, owner only business. It’s a tax efficient and cost effective plan that offers all the benefits of a Self Directed IRA plan, and includes additional benefits, such as high contribution limits (up to $60,000) and a $50,000 loan feature. There are many features of the Solo 401(k) plan that make it so appealing and popular among self employed business owners. A solo 401(k) Plan is typically used by owner owned business for the following purposes:
- High Contribution Limits: Under the 2017 Solo 401(k) contribution rules, a plan participant under the age of 50 can make a maximum employee deferral contribution in the amount of $18,000. That amount can be made in pre-tax or after-tax (Roth). On the profit sharing side, the business can make a 25% (20% in the case of a sole proprietorship or single member LLC) profit sharing contribution up to a combined maximum, including the employee deferral.For plan participants over the age of 50, an individual can make a maximum employee deferral contribution in the amount of $24,000. That amount can be made in pre-tax or after-tax (Roth). On the profit sharing side, the business can make a 25% (20% in the case of a sole proprietorship or single member LLC) profit sharing contribution up to a combined maximum, including the employee deferral, of $60,000.
- Loan Feature: While an IRA offers no participant loan feature, the Solo 401k allows participants to borrow up to $50,000 or 50% of their account value (whichever is less) for any purpose.
- Finance a Business or investment: Borrow up to $50,000 to finance a business or make an investment.
- Flexible Investment Options: You can invest in almost any type of investment, including real estate, private business entities and commercial paper and channel the gains back into your 401(k) tax free.
- Roth Type Contributions: With IRAs, those who earn high incomes are disallowed from contributing to a Roth IRA or converting their IRA to a Roth IRA. The Solo 401(k) plan contains a built in Roth sub-account which can be contributed to without any income restrictions.
- Cost Effective Administration: In general, the solo 401(k) plan is easy to operate. There is generally no annual filing requirement unless your solo 401(k) plan exceeds $250,000 in assets, in which case you will need to file a short information return with the IRS (Form 5500).
- Exemption from UDFI: When an IRA buys real estate that is leveraged with mortgage financing, it creates
- Income (a type of
- Income) on which taxes must be paid. A Solo 401(k) plan is exempt from UDFI.
Retirement Saving Consolidation Through Rollovers
A solo 401(k) plan can accept rollovers of funds from another retirement savings vehicle, such as an IRA, a SEP, or a previous employer’s 401(k) plan.